1. A minimum of 32 credits including:
- LIN 201 (with a grade of 3.0 or higher),
- 302 or 307,
- 403 or 404,
- 470 (fulfills the university general education requirement for the capstone experience and for a writing intensive course in the major or general education).
- At least 8 additional credits of 300-400 level ALS or LIN courses.
2. At least 8 additional credits from LIN or ALS courses or from ENG 215; MTH 302, 415, 475; FRH 215, 312, 314; SPN 313, 314; PHL 107, 329, 333, 370, 437; or PSY 316.
- two year’s study of a single foreign language through the 215 level or higher, or
- LIN 409 and one year’s study of a single foreign language through the 115 level or higher.
4. Only two ALS or LIN courses at the 100 and 200 level will be accepted for credit toward the major.
1. LIN 201 (with a grade of 3.0 or higher), 303, 304, and either 403 or 404.
2. At least 4 credits from 300-400 level LIN or ALS courses.
Credits toward the minor will only be allowed for courses completed with a grade of 2.0 or higher. A cumulative grade point average (GPA) of 3.0 is required for courses included in the minor.
To earn the modified major, students must complete:1. A minimum of 24 credits in linguistics courses to include LIN 201 (with a grade of 3.0 or higher), 303, 304, 470, and either 403 or 404. LIN 470 fulfills the university general education requirement for the capstone experience and for a writing intensive course in the major or general education.
2. A minimum of 20 credits in CSE courses as follows: CSE 120 and 130; and three courses chosen from CSE 220, 247, 248, 251, 230. At least 12 of these credits must be taken at Oakland University. An average grade of at least 2.0 is required in courses counted toward this minor. See requirements for the minor in computing in the School of Engineering and Computer Science.
3. PHL 370.
Students may elect a modified major in anthropology, communication, English, philosophy, psychology, or sociology, with a concentration in linguistics.
The core in linguistics requires 16 credits including LIN 201 (with a grade of 3.0 or higher), 303, 304 and either 403 or 404. An additional 4 credits are required for the specific concentration as follows: ALS 374 or 375 (anthropology), LIN 305 (communication), ENG 376 (english), LIN 307 or 407 (philosophy), ALS 335 (psychology), and ALS 376 (sociology).For requirements in the modified majors, consult the appropriate department.
Admission is selective. The department will consider applicants who hold a baccalaureate degree from an accredited institution and whose credentials, including transcripts and two letters of recommendation, give evidence of academic distinction. Applicants must explain, in a statement of purpose, their reasons for wishing to pursue graduate work in linguistics. Although an undergraduate major in linguistics is not a requirement for admission, applicants must demonstrate a knowledge of the basic principles of linguistics, as would be encountered in introductory linguistics courses.A grade point average of 3.00 (on a 4.00 scale) in undergraduate work is ordinarily the minimum standard for admission. At its discretion, the department may admit students of superior promise but deficient preparation provided that such students correct their deficiencies before commencing graduate work. Students may be admitted during any semester or session of the university calendar. Applicants to the program must have all their credentials in to the Office of Graduate Study no later than six weeks before the beginning of their initial semester of registration. After that time, and until the beginning of classes, they may apply for admission as special graduate students. However, not more than 12 credits earned as a special graduate can be applied toward the degree; therefore, the application must be completed as soon as possible. Upon completion of 12 credits, students will be evaluated for admission to candidacy and will choose an area of specialization.
The Master of Arts degree in linguistics will be awarded to the student who earns 36 credits in nine courses as specified below. Upon admission to candidacy, the student will choose an area of specialization from among the following three: linguistic theory, teaching English to speakers of other languages, and teaching language arts. Non-native speakers of English who wish to specialize in teaching English as a Second Language must satisfactorily complete and oral and written examination in English. At least 16 credits (four courses) of work must be in the area of specialization. All students must take the Core Program of 12 credits which includes LIN 680 (Graduate Seminar in Linguistics) or LIN 690 (The Master's Thesis). Details on the requirements and guidelines for LIN 680 and LIN 690 are available here. When graduate courses are cross listed with undergraduate courses, graduate students will be required to complete additional work at the graduate level, usually an essay or a project decided in conjunction with the professor.
1. 9 courses (36 credits)
2. no more than 8 credits in courses from other departments
3. no more than 8 credits in 400-level LIN or ALS courses
4. either (a) two years of foreign language study, or (b) one year of foreign language study and LIN 409; in either case, demonstrated first year proficiency in at least one foreign language is required. First year proficiency can be demonstrated by satisfactory completion of a language course at the 115 level.
Core Program(12 credits)
1. LIN 503 Introduction to Phonology
2. LIN 504 Introduction to Syntax
3. LIN 680 Seminar in Linguistics or LIN 690 The Master's Thesis
Linguistic Theory (24 credits)
1. LIN 603 Phonological Theory or LIN 613 Advanced Phonology
2. LIN 604 Syntactic Theory or LIN 614 Advanced Syntax
3. LIN 502 Historical Linguistics or LIN 507 Introduction to Semantics
4. One (1) of LIN 505 (Introduction to Phonetics), 507 (Introduction to Semantics), or 557 (Cognitive Linguistics)
5. Two (2) electives
Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (24 credits)
1. LIN 505 Introduction to Phonetics
2. ALS 518 The Teaching of English as a Second Language
3. ALS 519 Practicum (4 credits)
4. Two (2) of ALS 535 (Psycholinguistics), ALS 517 (Models of Second Language Acquisition), ALS 574 (Cross-Cultural Communication)
5. One (1) elective
Teaching Language Arts (24 credits)
1. ALS 520 Linguistics and Reading or ALS 538 Theory and Practice in Language Testing
2. ALS 534 Language Development in Children
3. ALS 535 Psycholinguistics or ALS 518 The Teaching of English as a Second Language
4. LIN 604 Syntactic Theory or LIN 614 Advanced Syntax
5. Two (2) electives
The Linguistics Department is now offering a minor in Teaching English as a Second Language. In addition, students majoring in elementary or secondary education will receive an endorsement on their Michigan teaching certificate to teach English as a second language in elementary or secondary school programs. To earn a Teaching English as a Second Language minor in linguistics, the student must complete a minimum of 24 credits to include: LIN 201, ALS 317, 375, 418, 419, and 438. Credit toward the minor will only be allowed for courses with a grade of 2.0 or higher. Students must satisfy the eligibility requirement described under Practicum Eligibility to obtain the minor.
Required Coursework for the Undergraduate Minor in Teaching ESL:
Commentary: This course introduces students to the modern study of human language and the fundamentals of modern linguistic theory emphasizing its contribution to our understanding of the structure of English and its application in the ESL classroom . The course will focus on teaching students about core areas of linguistic structure: phonetics and phonology (speech sounds and how to pattern them) morphology (word structure) syntax (phrase and sentence structure), semantics (meaning), language universals and historical change. In this course students learn linguistics by working out and handling numerous linguistic problems from a wide variety of world languages. These core areas will be discussed in three parts. The first part will be a description of the area from the point of modern linguistic theory, e.g., in the area of phonetics, a description of the classification of sounds in terms of articulatory phonetics. The second part will involve the application of the theory to an analysis of the structure of English, e.g., a presentation of the phonetic description of the sounds of modern English. The third part will explore ways in which this information can be useful in the elementary and secondary ESL classroom, e.g., demonstrating how an understanding of sound structure can help elementary and secondary ESL teachers deal with such matters as accent reduction. This course outlines concepts that focus on developing literacy skills such as: The importance of phoneme-grapheme patterns in reading instruction; the importance of understanding the purpose and function of structure words in reading mastery; the structure of language is revealed in sentence patterns.
Commentary: This course adds a theoretical component to students’ preparation to work as TESOL specialists in a variety of contexts. The course will give students an overview of the current proposals concerning the acquisition of skill in second language and will provide an opportunity for students to do research on some aspect of L2 acquisition that is of interest to them. In this course, students will learn the theoretical foundations of first and second language acquisition. They will compare the various theories of first language acquisition including the behavioristic, nativist, and functional approaches. They will investigate how language works and develops in the brain as a reflection of the innateness hypothesis that emphasizes age as a major factor in successful acquisition of a first language. Students will study the taxonomies and models of second language acquisition emphasizing Stephen Krashen’s input hypothesis. The course will cover both affective principles of language acquisition (those that originate in the student as an individual and as a member of a native culture) and cognitive principles of language acquisition (those that uncover the process of language development in the brain for second language learners).
Commentary: In this course, students will be exposed to various approaches to education in other countries something that can greatly affect a non-native speaking student’s adaptation to the American education system. We will focus on the cultures and sociological issues most commonly encountered in the metropolitan Detroit area. Students will learn about verbal and not-verbal behaviors, how different cultures view collaborative learning and the cultural influences on student motivation and performance in the elementary and secondary classroom, as well as the influence of factors in the home.
Prerequisite: LIN 201
Commentary: In this course students will investigation current methods, approaches, and techniques for teaching ESL to LEP K-12 students. Students will focus on actual classroom practices and activities for teaching reading, writing, listening, pronunciation, conversation, grammar, and vocabulary as well as the integration of techniques to reflect authentic language use. Students will design lessons and activities for elementary and secondary ESL classrooms for each of the skill areas of language learning. They will design, evaluate, and select materials appropriate for second language learners consistent with current methodology in language teaching and learning. These lessons are often a shift in focus for K-12 teachers since the content is the focus in a standard classroom whereas the language is the focus in an ESL classroom, the medium through which the content is taught. Students will learn how to combine these two approaches in the development of content-based instruction. Students will develop lesson plans that are appropriate for elementary or secondary education in each of the skill areas of language acquisition (reading, writing, listening, pronunciation, conversation, grammar, vocabulary). They will focus on determining age-appropriate and proficiency-appropriate materials and learn to assess the effectiveness of the materials they choose and design. Students will also learn to modify existing materials and/or assigned curricula to meet the needs of their students and to promote the development of students’ critical thinking skills. Students will learn to design curricula to meet the needs of elementary or secondary ESL learners consistent with theory-based expectations of language improvement. In addition, students will develop skills and intuition for appropriate correction and ways to attain improvement in proficiency by meeting both individual and group needs of elementary and secondary English Language Learners. Students develop a commitment to build professional skills that will help their students communicate and negotiate with others as well as develop critical thinking skills.Candidates focus on understanding and aligning the standards and benchmarks of the Michigan English Language Proficiency Standards, Michigan Curriculum Framework, and ESL Standards for Pre-K, elementary and/or secondary ESL students in curricular planning. Candidates learn that the foundation for instruction of content standards is the professional teaching standards that the teacher has internalized and learned through professional development.
Prerequisite: ALS 317 or ALS 418
Commentary: In this course, students will learn to identify, assess, and place students in proficiency-appropriate classes and programs. A variety of ESL assessment tools used with K-12 student groups will be discussed. There will be an overview of the theoretical bases for assessment development, specifically, practicality, reliability, and validity. Students will learn to design assessment tools for everyday use in the elementary and secondary classroom. Students will investigate commercial language tests such as the ELPA and learn strategies for preparing English language learners for standardized tests such as the MEAP, ACT, SAT, and TOEFL. Students will learn the legal implications of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act ensuring that LEP students have the same meaningful access to school programs as minority students, and how to conduct Lau compliance reviews requiring that LEP students have access to the same curricula provided to their English-speaking peers. Candidates understand the principles of assessment and the teacher’s role as a resource to stakeholders of assessment. In addition, candidates recognize that assessment can promote student goal setting, self-evaluation, and autonomy. Candidates review guidelines for adapting assessments to accommodate the students’ cultural characteristics, prior knowledge, and educational experiences. In addition, candidates demonstrate the ability to adjust classroom instruction based on authentic assessment results. Classroom activities are used to assess areas that need further teaching.
Prerequisite: ALS 418 and permission of instructor
Commentary: Candidates teach classes in a program that is similar to an intensive English program (IEP) for children. Children enrolled in the program come from both public and private schools within Oakland County. These students are placed in classes according to their grade level. Within each grade level, students’ language proficiency is assessed. English as a second language learners then will work in groups at their proficiency level as well as in groups of multi-level proficiency. Children attend class from 6:00 pm to 8:00 pm Monday and Wednesday for thirteen weeks. An experienced K-12 ESL teacher acts as a supervisor (the instructor of record) and is present during all class sessions to assist teachers with lesson plans, student placement, and classroom issues. In addition, the supervising teacher performs a minimum of three formal observations and evaluations of the practicum teachers. The practicum is held at Hispanic Outreach in Pontiac. Candidates will demonstrate an understanding of typical behaviors of second language learners at various levels of proficiency during the natural process of language acquisition in the classroom by the creation of authentic language assessments and meaningful classroom activities. During the practicum experience candidates demonstrate an understanding of how to integrate and align the ESL Standards for the ESL Pre-K, elementary and secondary students, the Michigan Curriculum Framework and Michigan English Language Proficiency Standards. This understanding is demonstrated through the use of appropriate classroom strategies and techniques that support second language and academic learning. Candidates must demonstrate a high level of competency in teaching English language learners during the practicum experience. They must develop lessons that combine a variety of activities using content area subject matter to teach speaking, listening, reading and writing for social and academic purposes. Candidates are required to examine and interpret student progress through multiple assessments. In addition, candidates communicate these findings to stakeholders by holding parent-teacher conferences and providing parents and the students’ home school district with a final student performance evaluation. During the practicum experience teachers continue to develop their professional expertise through peer coaching, team teaching, and collaborative curriculum development, and classroom based research. Candidates will use this developing knowledge to provide professional advice and assistance to parents, students, teachers and communities. Click here for more on the practicum teaching program.
-Brittany Jakubik, Spanish Major, ESL Minor, K-12 Certification