Expand the section navigation mobile menu

Eye Research Institute

Dodge Hall
118 Library Drive
Rochester, Michigan 48309-4479
(location map)

Eye Research Institute

Dodge Hall
118 Library Drive
Rochester, Michigan 48309-4479
(location map)

Barry S. Winkler

Professor Emeritus of Biomedical Sciences
406 Dodge Hall of Engineering
(248) 370-2398
[email protected]

Barry S. Winkler received his B.A. in biology from Harpur College (now SUNY at Binghamton) in 1965 and conducted his M.A. and Ph.D. work at the University of Buffalo Medical School in physiology under Professor Werner K. Noell. In 1971, Dr. Winkler joined the Eye Research Institute. His career in eye research began in graduate school where he was amongst the first group of investigators to successfully develop techniques for maintaining the biochemical and electrophysiological activities of superfused mammalian retinas in vitro. These models have served as the foundation of his studies on retinal metabolism and physiology during his many years at Oakland University

Winkler has been fortunate to have had strong, continuing support from the National Eye Institute for his laboratory, which typically includes 2-4 talented undergraduate students together with a research assistant. In addition, he has benefitted greatly from collaborations with faculty in the ERI and at other universities.

For more than 25 years, Winkler taught Neurobiology (BIO 351), a 4-credit upper-level biology course to undergraduates. He also has taught a 4-credit course, titled "Visual Reality and Perception in Health and Disease," to students in the Honors College of Oakland University.

In addition to full-time research in the Eye Research Institute, Winkler served as the associate director and interim director of the Honors College (1999-2002). He served on the Visual Sciences C Study Section, Division of Research Grants, National Institutes of Health from 1990-1995 and was chairman of the review panel from 1993-1995. He was a member of the Editorial Board of Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (1997-2002). He also served on the Board of Trustees (2004-2009) of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO).

Conducts studies on the contributions of specific substrates and pathways of energy metabolism on the functioning of retinal neurons, glial cells and the retinal pigment epithelium. Conducts experiments on antioxidant roles of glutathione and vitamin C in retina and other ocular tissues. Techniques include tissue incubations, cell cultures, electrophysiology, isotopic tracers, cellular respiration, spectrophotometric and fluorometric assays, and microscopy.

Recent Publications:

Diederen,R.M.H., Starnes, C.A., Berkowitz, B.A., and Winkler, B.S. (2006). Reexamining the hyperglycemic pseudohypoxia hypothesis of diabetic oculopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis Sci. 47:2726-2731.

Goebel, D.J. and Winkler, B.S. (2006). Blockade of PARP activity attenuates poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation but offers only partial neuroprotection against NMDA-induced cell death in the rat retina. J. Neurochemistry, 10:.

Winkler, B.S., Starnes, C.A., Sauer, M.W., Chen, Shu-Chu and Firouzgan, Z. (2004). Cultured retinal neuronal cells and Müller cells both show net production of lactate. Neurochemistry International Neurochemistry International 45:311-320.

Winkler, B.S., Sauer, M.W. and Starnes, C.A. (2004). Effects of L-glutamate/D-aspartate and monensin on lactic acid production in retina and retinal Müller (glial) cells. J. Neurochem. 89:514-525.

Winkler, B.S., Pourcho, R.G., Starnes, C.A., Slocum, J and Slocum N.: Metabolic mapping in mammalian retina: A biochemical and 3H-2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic study. Exp. Eye Res. 77:327-337, (2003).

Winkler, B.S. Hyperosmolarity and ERG potentials in isolated rat retins: Possible implications in diabetic models. Exp. Eye Res. 77:115-116 (2003).

Winkler, B.S., Sauer, M.W., and Starnes, Catherine E.: Modulation of the pasteur effect in retinal cells: Implications for understanding compensatory metabolic mechanisms. Exp. Eye Res. 76:715-723, (2003).

Winkler BS, Arnold MA, Brassell MA, and Puro DG. Energy metabolism in human retinal Muller (glial) cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 3183-3190. (2000).

Winkler BS, Boulton ME, Gottsch JD, Sternberg P. Oxidative damage and age-related macular degeneration. Mol Vis. 5, 32. (1999) (www.molvis.org/molvis/v5/p32/)

Winkler BS, Kapousta-Bruneau N, Arnold MJ, Green DG. Effects of inhibiting glutamine synthetase and blocking glutamate uptake on b-wave generation in the isolated rat retina. Vis Neurosci. 16, 345-53. (1999)

Riley MV, Winkler BS, Starnes CA, Peters MI, Dang L. Regulation of corneal endothelial barrier function by adenosine, cyclic AMP, and protein kinases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 39, 2076-84. (1998)

Riley MV, Winkler BS, Starnes CA, Peters MI. Fluid and ion transport in corneal endothelium: insensitivity to modulators of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransport. Am J Physiol. 273, C1480-6. (1997)

Winkler BS, Dang L, Malinoski C, Easter SS Jr. An assessment of rat photoreceptor sensitivity to mitochondrial blockade. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 38, 1569-77. (1997)

Fliesler SJ, Richards MJ, Miller CY, Mckay S, Winkler BS. In vitro metabolic competence of the frog retina: effects of glucose and oxygen deprivation. Exp Eye Res. 64, 683-92. (1997)

Winkler BS, Arnold MJ, Brassell MA, Sliter DR. Glucose dependence of glycolysis, hexose monophosphate shunt activity, energy status, and the polyol pathway in retinas isolated from normal (nondiabetic) rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 38, 62-71. (1997)

Riley MV, Winkler BS, Starnes CA, Peters MI. Adenosine promotes regulation of corneal hydration through cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 37, 1-10. (1996)

Sasaki H, Giblin FJ, Winkler BS, Chakrapani B, Leverenz V, Shu CC. A protective role for glutathione-dependent reduction of dehydroascorbic acid in lens epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 36, 1804-17. (1995)

Riley MV, Winkler BS, Czajkowski CA, Peters MI. The roles of bicarbonate and CO2 in transendothelial fluid movement and control of corneal thickness. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 36, 103-12. (1995)

Winkler, B.S. A quantitative assessment of glucose metabolism in the rat retina. In: Vision and adaptation, Les Seminaries ophthalmologiques d'IPSEN, tome 6 (ed. Y. Christen, M. Doly, M.T. Droy-Lefaix) Elsevier, Paris, pp. 78-96 (1995)