Higher Ed, State Facilities
Higher Ed, State Facilities
Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan
NREL Technical Report May 2006 - "Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state."
Utility Wind Integration Group has recently released a "Utility Wind Integration State of the Art" in May 2006.
"Since wind is primarily an energy – not a capacity – source, no additional generation needs to be added to provide back-up capability provided that wind capacity is properly discounted in the determination of generation."
Wisconsin Energies Cost Impact Study on Wind Integration - Final Report July 2003
"The results obtained show that the total incremental ancillary service cost for wind integration including regulation, intra-hour load following and hour-ahead forecast uncertainty ranges from $1.90 to $2.92 per MW-hr of wind production for total system wind capacities ranging from 250 to 2,000 MW."
Minnesota - Xcel Energy Wind Integration Report - Sept 2004
"...costs of integrating 1,500MW of wind generation into the Xcel control area in 2010 are no higher than $4.60/MWhr of wind generation, and are dominated by costs incurred by Xcel to accommodate the significant variability of wind generation forecast errors for the day-ahead time frame.
Community Wind Financing 2004
A handbook by the Environmental Law & Policy Center
US DOE Green Power Network - List of Retail Products by State
Current listing of retail green power products per state.
US DOE Green Power Network - Large Purchasers of Green Power
States who have begun to purchase wind power:
- State of Connecticut
- State of Illinois
- State of Maryland
- State of New Jersey
- State of New York
- Pennsylvania Department of General Services
- State of Rhode Island
- Rhode Island Renewable Energy
- Fund State of Tennessee
Universities who have begun to purchase wind power:
- American University
- Carnegie Mellon University
- Catholic University of America
- College of the Atlantic
- Colorado State University
- Concordia University
- Connecticut College
- Drexel University
- Duke University
- Harvard University
- Oregon State University
- Penn State University
- State University of New York
- University of Colorado
- University of Pennsylvania
- University of Southern Maine
- University of Wisconsin (Oshkosh)
- Wesleyan University
Pennsylvania Consortium of Wind Power Purchasers
The state of Pennsylvania ranks 22nd in the nation in wind resource. However, a consortium of 33 higher education institutions have joined in purchasing wind power. Many other states and higher education institutions have done so as well. They purchase power at a premium from Community Energy (below).
This Pennsylvania based company produces a "NewWindEnergy" product. The product consists of 100kW-hour blocks of wind power purchased directly from Community Energy or through a small number of utility companies.
Two new turbines installed in Bowling Green, Ohio in 2004 for a total of four...
The closest wind machines to SE Michigan are now located just west of I-75 at a municipal landfill in Bowling Green, OH. The four 1.8MW turbines are the largest wind turbines west of the Rockies. Two units installed in 2003 performed so well, Bowling Green Municipal Utilities added two more in Nov. 2004 !!! The wind farm operated at 30% capacity and 97% availability during its first month of operation.
National Wind Coordinating Committee Papers and Issue Briefs:
- List of Publications from NWCC
- Strategies for Supporting Wind Energy - A Review of State Policy Options July 1999
- Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities: A Handbook August 2002
- AWEA - Utility Partnerships Paper 2003
- NREL - Green Tags Paper 2002
- US EPA Green Power Purchasing Guide
- Public Utilities Fortnightly - Perspective - Bringing Wind Energy Up to Code 2004