Minor-Minor combinations can be chosen for several interdisciplinary careers and professions for which Oakland University does not currently have majors or minors. Combinations by minor include:
Advertising + Graphic Design
Graphic designers plan, analyze, and create visual solutions to communications problems, with messages differing in print and electronic media by using color, type, illustration, photography, animation and various print and layout techniques. Graphic designers are responsible for developing the overall layout and production design of various such as magazines, newspapers, journals, corporate reports, and other publications, and work within advertising in many ways. Some of the responsibilities of graphic designers in advertising include producing promotional displays, packaging and marketing brochures for products and services, designing logos for products and businesses, and developing signs and signage systems for business and government. Graphic designers also develop material for the computer and internet, including webpages, interactive media, and multimedia projects.
Graphic designers can work with drawn, painted, photographed, or computer-generated images as well as the letterforms to make typefaces in movie credits and TV ads, books, magazines, menus and computer screens. Graphic design informs, persuades, organizes, stimulates, locates, identifies, attracts attention, and provides pleasure. Graphic design combines art and technology to communicate ideas, working with a variety of communication tools to convey a message. Graphic designers represent their designs in two main mediums: images and type.
Within advertising, graphic designers use information such as the needs of the client, intended message portrayed by design, and appeal to customers or users before creating a new design. Graphic designers gather information relevant to their designs by meeting with clients, creative or art directors, and performing their own research. Once they acquire this information, graphic designers create sketches or layouts, either by hand or with a computer, to outline their design vision and include elements such as colors, sound, artwork, photography, animation, style of type and other visual elements. Graphic designers then choose a size and arrangement for the element to be displayed on the page or screen, create graphs and charts from data to be published, and consult with copywriters regarding text that accompanies the design. Completed designs are then presented to clients or art/creative directors for approval. Once the project is sent to be published or printed, graphic designers also consult with printers to help determine appropriate types of paper and ink for the publication, ultimately reviewing the proposed final copy to correct for errors prior to publication.
Graphic designers most often work in specialize design services such as advertising, printing and related support activities, newspapers, periodical books, directory publishers, and producing computer graphics for computer systems design firms. Emphasis is placed on graphic designers with experience in web site design and animation experience due to demand increases for projects using interactive media. Graphic design demand within advertising will increase as advertising firms make print and web marking and promotional materials for more products and services, especially in terms of internet advertising. A broad liberal arts education and experience in marketing and business management, such as with the liberal studies program in advertising and graphic design, make candidates better suited for positions working to develop communication strategies.
In these areas, graphic designers can create projects such as billboards, posters, logos, advertisements, brochures, magazines, book covers, newspapers, newsletters, product packaging, websites, t.v. commercials, graphics, signage, exhibits, film and video graphics, and computer graphics. Graphic designers can work with copywriters when working with text to go along with the designers image. They also work with art directors, design directors or creative directors, production managers, account executives, printer reps, photographers, illustrators and web developers.
Graphic designers working in advertising are employed by large advertising, publishing or design firms and work regular hours in well-lighted and comfortable settings. Graphic designers working in advertising such as in the printing and publishing companies are likely to work evenings or weekends due to production schedules wither shorter and more frequent deadlines. Graphic designers working in these settings typically work full-time but some also do freelance work.
Designers working for smaller design consulting firms or those who freelance work on a job or contract basis, adjust their workday to fit clients’ schedules and deadlines and tend to work longer hours and in smaller, more congested environments. Freelance designers have to please clients and find new ones to maintain a steady income, but are more flexible in their weekly schedule. Graphic designers in these settings often do full time or part time freelance work, in addition to holding a salaried job in design or another occupation.
Forensics/Crime Scene Analysis (Chemistry + Anthropology)
Forensics, or crime scene analysis, involves science applied to legal issues by assisting juries, attorneys and judges in understanding the physical evidence of a criminal case and is critical to identify and convict a criminal. Forensic scientists perform physical and chemical analyses on criminal evidence and report their findings to a court of law, where physical evidence can be found at the scene of the crime, on a victim or both. Forensic scientists employ mathematical principles, problem-solving methods, complex instruments, and microscopic examining techniques to analyze the evidence. Forensic scientists make connections based on the physical evidence to determine certain information and explain the results in court while describing the methods used to arrive at said conclusion. Some forensic scientists work in laboratories and some work at the crime scene.
Forensics includes issues ranging from validating the signature on a will, to assessing product liability, to investigating a corporation’s compliance with environmental laws. The evidence and data found by forensic scientists is based on scientific investigation rather than circumstantial evidence or testimonies of witnesses. The reliability of their findings often convince attorneys, judges or juries that certain cases do not require a court hearing, and this forensic science helps eliminate the overall amount of cases entering the court system. These findings also assist in proving the occurrence of a crime or makes connections to a crime. The forensic scientist must be able to describe complex chemical reactions and functioning of scientific instruments or medical conditions for everyone to understand rather than in scientific jargon as an expert witness.
Forensic anthropology, a particular subset within forensics, specializes in human skeletal biology and often involves training in archaeological methods, skill in identifying skeletal materials, and identifying the dead. Forensic anthropology can include recovering human remains from various locations, such as deserts or locations, or in situations such as mass disasters including earthquakes or tsunamis. These specialists can also assist in recovering evidence at a crime scene due to their expertise in mapping techniques and excavation. Due to the wide range of duties given to a forensic anthropologist, a background in archaeology, physical and cultural anthropology, genetics, chemistry and anatomy would be most beneficial.
Techniques to determine sex, age, race, health status, marks of trauma and occupational stress, and stature in life help forensic anthropology. Forensic anthropologists can also work alongside forensic pathologists to determine cause of death. Some forensic anthropologists are skilled in facial reproduction and can model how a face may have looked using only skeletal remains, while others can determine time elapsed since death by examining insect remains and states of body decompositions.
Forensic anthropologists working in the academic world work through universities or institutions teaching classes and performing individual research projects. In the applied field, forensic anthropologists can work with law enforcement, coroners, or medical examiners. In these locations, forensic anthropologists often work with forensic pathologists, odontologists, and homicide investigators in order to identify a deceased, trauma to the skeleton or the postmortem interval.
Forensic scientists often work in laboratories, at crime scenes, in offices and in morgues. In particular, they may work for federal, state, or local governments, forensic laboratories, medical examiners offices, hospitals, universities, toxicology laboratories, police departments, medical examiner/ coroner offices, or as independent forensic science consultants. Forensic anthropologists work in similar areas, particularly in places where skeletons are examined.
Linguistic Anthropology (Linguistics + Anthropology)
is an interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of language as a cultural resource and speaking as a cultural practice. It assumes that the human language faculty is a cognitive and a social achievement that provides the intellectual tools for thinking and acting in the world. Its study must be done by detailed documentation of what speakers say as they engage in daily social activities. This documentation relies on participant observation and other methods, including audiovisual recording, annotated transcription, and interviews with participants.
As an interdisciplinary field, linguistic anthropology has often drawn from and participated in the development of other theoretical paradigms. Some of its own history is reflected in the oscillation often found among a number of terms that are not always synonyms: linguistic anthropology, anthropological linguistics, ethnolinguistics, and sociolinguistics. Its main areas of interest have changed over the years, from an almost exclusive interest in the documentation of the grammars of aboriginal languages to the analysis of the uses of talk in everyday interaction and throughout the life span (Duranti 1997, Foley 1997).
Linguistic Anthropologist Career Information
Linguistic anthropologists study the nature of language and how humans use it in their everyday life. As social scientists, they study data, analyze previously collected data, read historical documents and make interpretations. They study the history of language, the way languages change over time and across cultures, and how languages shape human behavior and social life.
Linguistic anthropologists plan, direct and conduct research. They use individual and group interviews, focus groups, consultants and observation to obtain data. To do this, they use established techniques or create new techniques. Computer programs may be used to help them record and analyze their findings. Professors of linguistic anthropology may divide their time between teaching and research.
Anthropologists write papers based on their research findings and present them to anthropological societies, such as the American Anthropological Association, or to general audiences. Some linguistic anthropologists may act as consultants to governmental bodies or other organizations.
The skills needed to be a linguistic anthropologist include active listening, speaking, reading comprehension, writing, complex problem-solving and social perceptiveness. Knowledge of the scientific method, deductive and inductive reasoning, and creative thinking are all required for interpreting research.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average yearly salary for anthropologists varies by industry, and the highest-paid social scientists are those who work for the U.S. government. They earned an average of $71,400 in May 2009. Those in scientific development and research services averaged $51,620, and those who worked for state and local governments earned $50,290 and $55,500 respectively. The average salary for college and university professors and professional school instructors of anthropology was $46,890.
The BLS expects much faster growth rate for anthropologist jobs then other professions. Between 2008 and 2018, careers for anthropologists are projected to increase by 28%. The best job prospects are expected to come from management, and scientific and technical consulting.
Linguistic Anthropologist Requirements
While some entry-level positions, such as research assistant, may require a bachelor's degree, most anthropologists have a master's or doctoral degree. Social scientists are typically trained in statistics. Anthropologists often take courses in sociology, English, history, archeology, psychology, geography, philosophy and theology. Linguistic anthropologists may also need to study and learn foreign languages.
Those working in linguistic anthropology may work in research, for a government or private agency. They may work overseas with a particular group of people studying their language, or study a culture from a past time period through its preserved writings.
Some anthropological linguists work with displaced groups of people, helping them hold onto and preserve their culture by studying and documenting their language or writings.
Cultures like certain Native American groups, whose languages have nearly disappeared, are of special interest to linguistic anthropologists. These professionals work to document and maintain the almost lost languages.
An anthropologist working for an educational institution, may have responsibilities for publishing findings, or perhaps teaching a set number of credit hours per academic term as well.
Agencies and Corporations
Linguistic anthropologists may be employed by nonprofit agencies or corporations. They may work as consultants, or work with computer programmers to develop improved speech recognition programs.
Other job opportunities can include publishing, where linguistic anthropologists may work on dictionaries, histories or culture studies either as writers, editors or expert consultants.
Museums may hire linguistic anthropologists as researchers or consultants. They may work on museum publications as well.
They may find work at archives, translating or working on research related to documents.
Some testing corporations may employ linguistic anthropologists to research the language of testing documents, to check for any biases or problematic areas.
Linguistic anthropologists often work for the government. They may work with historic sites or trusts, as translators for different agencies, with refugee or immigrant populations or programs, or work for international government sites translating or researching language and people groups.
Some linguistic anthropologists are employed to teach English overseas, or teach English in the United States to different groups.
Working in diplomatic posts, some linguistic anthropologists may have special insights into different populations and be proficient speakers of the local languages.
Biopsychology (Biology + Psychology)
(also known as physiological psychology, behavioral neuroscience or psychobiology) is an interdisciplinary field that analyzes how the brain and neurotransmitters influence our behaviors, thoughts and feelings. Specifically, biopsychology is the application of the principles of biology (in particular neurobiology), to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in human and non-human animals. The focus of the work in this field is at the level of nerves, neurotransmitters, brain circuitry and the basic biological processes that underlie normal and abnormal behavior. Most typically, experiments in behavioral neuroscience involve non-human animal models (such as rats and mice, and non-human primates), which have implications for better understanding of human pathology.
Biopsychologists have an understanding of biological processes, anatomy and physiology. Components of specific interest to professionals in this field are the brain, neurotransmitters and the nervous system. Consequently, students wishing to pursue this field of study should take courses that help them understand the relationship between our biological make up (hormones, chemicals, etc.) and our behavior.
Educational requirements for biopsychologists include at least a bachelor's degree in biopsychology, biology, psychology or neuroscience. Employment opportunities are greater for those who pursue a master's degree and most employers require several years of experience working in studies related to biology, neuroscience or both.
Good candidates for employment must have excellent organizational and analytical skills, as well as good computer database skills for data collection. These professionals work in a laboratory environment and may study laboratory animals or analyze human samples.
Many biological psychologists have an interest in a particular condition or part of the brain, and research opportunities are available in a number of disciplines. Neuroscientists concentrate on discovering causes and affects of brain injury, mental illness, hormones and stress, typically examining neural function in laboratory animals. Pharmaceutical companies employ biological psychologists to study the influences of certain drugs on the brain, development and mental stability of humans. Other employers include hospitals, health care organizations and government agencies.
Entry-level opportunities in biological psychology consist primarily of assistant and coordinator positions. Research assistants typically conduct the hands-on work necessary for experiments in the field. The work is dependent on the interests of the assistant's supervising professor or researcher and may include gathering data from human research participants, performing simple surgical procedures or conducting experiments on animal subjects.
Mid-level and advanced careers include academic, counseling and scientific research positions. Biological psychologists teach in high schools, community colleges and postsecondary institutions. Often, those at the college level combine a teaching profession with research in the field and may benefit from finding employment with a public research university.
The information about biopsychology described above was obtained from the following websites (as well as the websites listed in the descriptions). People interested in pursuing a career as a biopsychologist or wanting to just learn more about the field can find a wealth of information and resources at these sites:
International Behavioral Neuroscience Society (IBNS)
and International Society for Developmental Psychobiology
Biomathematics (Biology + Mathematics)
Biomathematics (also known as mathematical biology and by some of it subfields including computational biology or systems biology) is an interdisciplinary field that uses mathematical techniques and tools to model natural and biological processes. Biomathematics has been used in areas such as cellular neurobiology, epidemic modeling, and population genetics.
was created to assist in developing analytical and predictive models of biological and medical systems. Biomathematics is different from programs in mathematics, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and traditional biology in that students are expected to have a strong background in both biology and applied mathematics. Mathematics and statistics programs typically do not train students to be intimately acquainted with empirical data in terms of measurements and biological meaning or to have deep biological knowledge. Biostatistics and Bioinformatics programs typically focus on statistical and algorithmic analysis of large datasets but not on the construction of mechanistic, predictive models. Traditional biology instill biological knowledge and techniques but teach little if any mathematics. Biomathematics combines all of these areas, building upon the fact that much of the research in the next few decades will require intimate knowledge that combines empirical data and methods, statistics, and theory. Studying interdisciplinary biology and mathematics allows students to avoid spending time gaining additional training through independent learning once they start a new job.
Mathematical modeling methods have become increasingly important in all branches of biology. The rapidly developing techniques of molecular biology and genetics produce a large amount of data, which need efficient algorithms to be handled. Analytical and computational approaches are being utilized as the basis for optimizing the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases, and for analyzing drug efficacy. The wealth of data afforded by new bioinformatics tools and modern molecular biology allow the formulation of precise models, which can then be subject to experimental validation.
The field of mathematical biology is undergoing a resurgence. There is an increase need for skilled computational biologists in scientific research and development. Opportunities about for graduate study, medical school, and research jobs in the pharmaceutical industry and government labs. Sample occupations for a biomathematics degree holder include assistant scientist, data analyst, information scientist, numerical analyst, operations research analyst, physician, psychometrician, researcher, statistician, systems analyst, teacher/professor, and technical writer. Types of employers include biomathematical research groups, biotechnology firms, cancer research centers, centers for disease control and prevention, colleges and universities, computer firms, financial institutions, hospitals/medical centers, large-scale sequencing centers, manufacturing firms, medical biomathematical institutes, national institutes of health, national science foundation, pharmaceutical firms and software development companies.
An Interdisciplinary program in Biomathematics translates well to areas that require the quantitative model based methodologies learned through the field of study. Some appropriate fields for employment include industrial biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, wastewater treatment, software development, management of natural water bodies, pharmaceutical systems, and food process technology.
Medical Illustration (Studio Art + Biology)
A medical illustrator is a professional artist who creates visual material for the use in medical, biological and related knowledge and requires training in medicine, science, and art techniques. Medical illustrators use traditional and digital techniques that can appear in medical textbooks, medical advertisements, professional journals, instructional videotapes and films, animations, web-based media, computer-assisted learning programs, exhibits, lecture presentations, general magazines and television. Typically used in print, medical illustration can able be made in three dimensions for the purpose of creating anatomical teaching models, patient simulators, and facial prosthetics.
Medical illustrators contribute to education, research, patient care, public relations and marketing efforts with their work by transforming complex information into visual images. As a part of the creative process, medical illustrators often read scientific papers, meet with scientific experts, or observe surgery or a laboratory procedure. To become a medical illustrator, students should concentrate on art and biology, with art courses including drawing, life drawing, painting, color theory, graphic design, illustration and computer graphics, while science courses should include general biology or zoology, vertebrate anatomy, developmental biology, physiology, chemistry, and cell biology.
Medical illustrations and animations
can appear in many different biological, medical and related media and markets. Some common areas where medical illustrations can be found include trade and consumer publications, advertising, textbooks and journals, web, television, patient education, continuing medical education, interactive learning, trade shows, museums, and veterinary, dental and legal markets. Increases in science and technology has opened the field to include computer animations in order to assist with helping patients to better understand their state of health and medical options as well as with attorneys to clarify complex medical information for judges and juries in personal injury and medical malpractice cases. This has expanded the need for medical illustrators beyond traditional applications such as books and journals.
About half of medical illustrators are self-employed, either working alone or within creative teams with other professionals such as writers, graphic designers, photographers or filmmakers. Other medical illustrators work at medical schools, universities, veterinary schools, pharmaceutical companies, hospitals and clinics, research institutions, medical publishers, law firms, advertising agencies, web/animation firms and other creative services businesses.
Some medical illustrators take on leadership positions and become art directors, managers, administrators, faculty members, and business owners. Medical illustrators also function as content developers, creative directors, consultants and administrators within the field of biocommunications and as business owners and entrepreneurs in the marketplace in addition to creating medical illustrations.
Art Conservation/Restoration (Chemistry + Studio Art)
is an interdisciplinary field involving studio practices, sciences, and the humanities with conservators having responsibilities including the long-term preservation of artistic and cultural artifacts. Conservators meet these responsibilities by making an analysis and assessment of the artifact’s condition, understanding processes and evidence of deterioration, planning for care and management to prevent damage, implementing conservation treatments and conducting research. Conservation includes determining the materials, method of manufacture, and properties of objects or structures and the causes and extent of deterioration or alteration, and consequently, scientific analysis and research to identify historic and artistic methods and materials of fabrication, and to evaluate the efficacy and appropriateness of materials and procedures of conservation.
Conservators often have backgrounds in fine arts, sciences such as chemistry, biology and materials science, as well as art history, archaeology, studio art and anthropology. They also have design fabrication, artistic, and other special skills necessary for the practical application of that knowledge. Conservation labs often use equipment such as microscopes, spectrometers, and x-ray machines to aid in understanding objects and their components where collected data helps determine the necessary conservation treatment. The use of chemical and scientific analysis for the examination and treatment of cultural works shows the advantages of combining art and chemistry in an interdisciplinary approach.
Careers in conservation vary depending on the particular material or group of objects being conserved and can include paintings, art on paper, textiles, archives, books, photographs, electronic media, sculpture, decorative arts, architecture, built environments, archaeology, natural science, or ethnographic materials. Conservators often work in locations including museums, regional facilities, heritage institutions, libraries, universities, archives, laboratories, government agencies, and private conservation enterprises. Other positions held by conservators include conservation administrator, conservation educator, conservation scientist, conservation technician, and collections care/preservation specialist. Education and training for such careers should provide technical and scientific knowledge of materials and deterioration processes, develop appropriate aesthetic and perceptual abilities, and instill an essential ethnical perspective.
Criminal Justice + Information Technology
Criminal justice majors study the systems that governments put into place to apprehend, arrest, prosecute and punish those who commit crimes in order to maintain social order. Courses shape a student's understanding of both crime and justice and emphasize the role of law enforcement and courtrooms in the criminal justice system here and abroad. The major is intended to equip students with a thorough knowledge of the origins of criminal behavior, police unit administration, crime lab technology, probation and parole, corrections, and criminal justice theory. Another goal of the criminal justice major is to get students to think critically about the balance between individual rights and public order.
Students can choose to concentrate their studies in different areas of criminal justice, such as law enforcement, forensic science, or homeland security. Criminal justice is highly interdisciplinary, intersecting with subjects such as sociology, psychology, science and communication. Courses in a criminal justice major might include: Police & Society, Survey of Criminal Courts, Criminology, Criminal Procedure and Juvenile Justice.
Information Technology provide a crucial link between technology and criminal justice. Students of IT learn how to design computing systems based on an agency’s research, data, and communication needs. In Information Technology courses, one learns all the basics of computer science, including hardware and software components, programming, algorithms, databases, operating systems and network administration. Computer design and editing existing systems and software may also be included in an IT curriculum.
A wide array of careers are available to criminal justice graduates, including police officers (particularly the higher ranks); crime analysts; crime prevention specialists; court coordinators; juvenile and adult probation officers; legal research assistants; and border patrol agents. The job outlook for criminal justice majors is excellent, as crime reduction has long been a major domestic policy concern, according to a major description provided by Indiana University—Bloomington.
Job opportunities in policing, probation and parole, and private security are increasing as well. A top employer of students who have studied Criminal Justice and Information Technology is the Federal Government, in particular, the FBI
. The FBI operates an Criminal Justice Information Service Division that specifically calls upon the skill sets and training from an interdisciplinary education.
The Criminal Justice Information Services Division (CJIS) serves as the focal point and central repository for criminal justice information services in the FBI. CJIS is a customer-driven organization that provides state-of-the-art identification and information services to the local, state, federal, and international criminal justice communities. The CJIS Division includes the Fingerprint Identification Program, National Crime Information Center Program, Uniform Crime Reporting Program and the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) -- a computer-based system that can store, process, analyze, and retrieve millions of fingerprints in a short period of time. The mission of CJIS is to reduce terrorist and criminal activities. We do this by maximizing the ability to provide timely and relevant criminal justice information to the FBI and to qualified law enforcement, criminal justice, civilian, academic, employment, and licensing agencies concerning individuals, stolen property, criminal organizations and activities and other law enforcement related data. In support of these efforts, CJIS administers an advisory process which shares management and policy making decisions with local, state, and federal criminal justice agencies.
Information Technology Specialist – Requires individuals with extensive computer technology backgrounds in programming, maintenance, and system development. CJIS manages and operates large information systems that serve as a mechanism to share criminal justice information with the FBI’s partners in the local, state, federal and international criminal justice communities. Information Technology Specialists research, develop and evaluate new and emerging technologies and develop enhancements to existing CJIS programs of importance to the law enforcement/criminal justice community.
Art Therapy (Studio Art + Psychology)
Art therapy is a mental health profession that uses the creative process of art making, within a professional relationship, to improve and enhance the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of individuals of all ages.
One of the central assumptions of art therapy is that people can increase awareness of self and others as well as cope with symptoms, stress, and traumatic experiences through creating art and reflecting on the art products and processes.
Research in the field confirms that the creative process involved in artistic self-expression helps people to resolve conflicts and problems, develop interpersonal skills, manage behavior, reduce stress, increase self-esteem and self-awareness, and achieve insight.
Art therapists are master’s level professionals, trained in both art and therapy, working in a variety of settings. They are knowledgeable about human development, psychological theories, clinical practice, spiritual, multicultural and artistic traditions, and the healing potential of art. They use this knowledge for treatment, assessment and research, and provide consultations to allied professionals. They work with clients of all ages who have experienced illness, trauma, or challenges in living. They also work with people who seek this type of therapy for personal development. Art therapists provide these services individually and as part of clinical teams, in settings that include mental health, rehabilitation, medical and forensic institutions; community outreach programs; wellness centers; schools; nursing homes; corporate structures; open studios and independent practices.
The information about art therapy described above was obtained from the following websites. People interested in pursuing a career as an art therapist or wanting to just learn more about the practice will find a wealth of information and resources at these sites: American Art Therapy Association
, British Association of Art Therapists
and Art Therapy Credentials Board